This is very subdued ingame, so I wouldn't call it a straightforward science fiction game. It just has too much overlap with fantasy, both plot and setting-wise.
If we can't agree whether the physics of a setting allow for anti-mass to exist or FTL to be nonsensically precise, what use is agreeing on whether a laser cannon is a thing that shoots photon streams? If the underlying physics and technological conditions aren't more or less agreed upon, we'd have to talk out what photons are to begin with.
Because you can place the same weapon in a smaller ship, or use the additional mass for other things, while retaining an equal level of power. Turrets commit a certain, non-neglegible amount of mass to extend the firing arc of a weapon, but they don't serve much purpose outside of a fairly limited situation where the ship is too massive to turn towards the enemy in combat - which should be quite rare in space, since the only thing stopping a ship from turning is a desire to accelerate, or essentially touching hulls with the enemy, which, considering the difficulty of approaching predictable objects like asteroids in space, should be fairly rare even with more powerful engines and better computing, since accelerating to a certain speed commits you to a certain course, and the enemy will likely not try to make themselves easy to catch or actively hold a parallel course, as proximity means greater risk.
Not limiting fixed weapons to full-length spinal emplacements and their ilk also means they can be combined with turrets more easily, as removing one turret should free up the mass for three or four guns of the same type mounted in that turret, or a somewhat larger model that doesn't have disproportionate requirements.
Another reason for smaller weapons is that hitting a target may be very hard to accomplish, which is dependent on the definition of the setting, That makes it easier for turrets to perform, since they can stock smaller weapons more easily, but a battery of small- or mid-scale fixed weapons would still deliver more firepower for the same mass.
Both Wormholes and Warp drives make it impossible to detect the outside, possibly completely impossibele, perhaps the only introduce considerable distortions. We can't know, both are entirely theoretical and can only be evaluated based on theories.
The only FTL sensors that are possible under known physics seem to be based on gravity/space-time curvature, which warp drives and wormholes would both affect - meaning FTL travel can be pinpointed - but since both modes of travel would affect the space-time curvature themselves, which would at least interfere with such sensors, if not make meaningful sensing impossible while the drive is in effect. That implies any jump has to be calculated beforehand, based on known data, with safety margins to avoid collisions.
Those aren't conditions that allow a jump to end exactly adjacent to an enemy, close enough that detailed lateral maneuvering would play a big role, and that is before accounting for countermeasures, which both drives would permit, unless only natural wormholes were used - provided wormholes occur naturally in a useful form. Warp drives as proposed create a fairly large distortion field, so a ship could, if an approaching ship in warp is detected, use its own warp drive to interfere with that field. In fact, that may be the only way a ship in normal flight can survive coming close to another ship that is currently warping, so if that option did not exist combat may never occur, or if so, only at a longer range. If the neutralization distance is small enough, maneuvering could play a role, at least if the speed on emergence is relatively low, because the ships would otherwise quickly gain distance from each other. If this isn't the case, ships will not be close enough consistently to circle or pass each other and dogfight, meaning there is no particular reason to employ turrets.
If wormhole drives create point-to-point connections, close combat can only happen if the defender desires it, as traversing a wormhole happens under the limitation of the speed of light and takes time, the distance inside the wormhole is simply shorter than the distance between the end points in normal space. Both ends of the connection may need to be stabilized, so there may need to be jump gates on both ends, meaning wormholes could actually be fixtures, and thus only the time of an enemy emerging is variable, not the place. Obviously, that makes attacking tremendously difficult, the only viable tactic may be sending a swarm of kinetic projectiles ahead to hopefully clear mines laid in front of the gate and emerge at extreme speed to gain distance before more than a few shots can be exchanged with nearby defenders. Jump gates could probably be destroyed quite simply if no connection was desired, but that doesn't have much to do with their tactical implications.
There is also the possibility that wormholes reduce the relative distance beween two points to zero, which makes little difference if the end point is fixed an thus known, but it may be possible - I don't know the theories enough to say for sure, if they even are that detailed to begin with - to create a wormhole while already inside one, which essentially works like the warp drive, only that the distortion becomes persistent after use. In that case, the emergence would not be as predictable, especially if this is combined with virtually erasing the intervening distance, resulting in the fanciful notion of a teleport drive. Such a drive would still not permit to emerge directly next to an enemy, since the position of the enemy is unknown and there may still be countermeasures that deny certain areas of space as target points - possibly including natural space-time curves, like stellar and planetary bodies.
Assuming quantum entanglement persists through the usage of such a drive and can transfer useful amounts of data, reconnaissance of the target area is possible, and since the reaction time of the enemy is however long it takes to recon after the scout emerges, emerging close enough to the enemy to dogfight is possible in the absence of countermeasures and enemy jumps. This is really the only situation in which space functions as known and one party can force another into a dogfight without complex strategic maneuvering at distances that leave ample time to simply turn the ship to fire.
Beyond that, the only real point to using turrets on a space ship is that you don't plan on mounting so much gun that the mass lost makes a noticable difference.^^